On Judeo-Persian Language and Literature | Part Two: Texts and Bibliography

by Adam McCollum in

In a two-part series, Dr. Adam McCollum addresses the possibilities for the field of Judeo-Persian language and literature. Part One addressed the state of the field and Part Two includes a helpful bibliography and four text samples.
Yūsuf va Zulaykhā (Joseph and Zulaykha)  Photo credit: The Library of The Jewish Theological Seminary

Yūsuf va Zulaykhā (Joseph and Zulaykha)  Photo credit: The Library of The Jewish Theological Seminary

In Part One of our Judeo-Persian series, Dr. Adam McCollum described the texts, communities, and significance of Judeo-Persian manuscripts. 

Text Samples

The texts below, all translated from Hebrew, have all been previously published (although one is here edited anew from the manuscript). I have added verse-by-verse vocabulary and a few grammatical notes, in some cases more, in some cases less, but hopefully the texts and notes will be of some use both for those who know Persian at various levels and those who do not. For comparison, the Hebrew texts are readily available both online and in print.

JP texts are often (but not always) published in transliteration, which makes them more accessible to Iranologists, and the same is done here. It is generally an easy matter to go back to the Hebrew script, if one so desires. Manuscripts differ in the degree to which scribes have added diacritics (and vowels), and editions (whether presented in Hebrew or Roman script) may reflect this. Not surprisingly, Hebrew words are sometimes met with in JP texts, and there are dialectal characteristics, hardly all of which are pointed out in what follows. The Persian transliteration (not a phonetic transcription) followed in the notes will, I hope, be clear enough without explanation.

1. Jonah 3:1-5

Ed. Hjerrild Carlsen 1977.

1 bwd swxn xwdʾ br ywnh gwptn rʾ

suxun word | xudā God | guftan, gū- to say + (postpositional) obj. marker for Heb lēmōr

The word of God came to Jonah, saying:

2 br xyz brww bnynwh šhr bwzwrg ǧʾr zn bʾw ǧʾrhʾ ʾwn čy mn swxn gwyym br tw

bar + xīz impv 2sg xāstan, xīz- to arise = to get up | bi-rav impv 2sg raftan, rav- to go (away) | ǧār zadan, zan- news, report + hit = to announce (here impv 2sg) (The noun ǧār [also ǧārčī herald, messenger] is of Mongolian origin. See G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen, vol. 1, Mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen (Wiesbaden, 1963), №№ 146-147.) | ba-ū against it (Nineveh) | suxun word + gūyam pres 1sg guftan, gū- to say = to speak

Get up, go to Nineveh, the great city, make against it the announcements that I speak to you!

3 br xʾst ywnh brft br nnwh čwn swxn xwdʾ wnynwh rwwšt sh rwz ḥd ʾw

xāst past 3sg xāstan, xīz- | bi-raft past 3sg raftan, rav- | čūn according to | ravišt (with -št characteristic of JP; classical Persian has ) going, walking | ḥad(d) boundary, limit

Jonah got up, went to Nineveh, according to the word of God. Nineveh’s border was a three day’s walk across.

4 ʾwfdydʾ krd ywnh byʾmdn bšhr rwwšt yk rwz ǧʾr zd gwpt hnwz čhl rwz dygr nynwh gšth myšwwd

ufdīdā kardan, kun- (apparently) to begin | bi (prep.) (on bi + infinitive, see Lazard 1963 § 439) + āmadan, ā- to come | ǧār zadan, zan- to announce (here past 3sg) | gwpt guft NB scriptio plena | hanūz yet, still, further | čahal forty | gašte mī-šavad p.ptcp gaštan, gard- to turn + pres 3sg šudan, šav-

Jonah began to enter the city, one day’s walk in, announced [the message]. He said: Yet forty days more, Nineveh will be overturned!

5 bʾwwr krdn mrdmʾnʾn nynwh bxwdʾ ǧʾr zdnd rwzh bpwštn plʾṣ ʾz bwzwrg ʾyšʾn tʾ kwčk ʾyšʾn

āvar true, certain: + kardan to believe (here past 3pl, not the inf; see Lazard 1963 § 79 for -nd > -n) | mardumān double pl (cf. mardum) of mard | rūze itself can mean fasting, fast-day, in addition to simply day (Steingass 594a) | bi-pūštan ? = bi-pūšīdan(d) past 3pl pūšīdan, pūš- (with t for d, and -n for -nd, both not uncommon otherwise in JP; perhaps the omission of y after š is simply a mistake of the scribe) to put on, wear, cover | palāṣ = NP palās sackcloth | kūčak small, little (cf. Turkish küçük, on which see the lengthy treatment in G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen, vol. 3, Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen (Wiesbaden, 1967), № 1664, pp. 628-631; note also the similar MP kōdak, NP kūdak)

The people of Nineveh believed God, announced a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the great among them to the small.

2. Eccl 9:7-10

Ed. Paper 1973b

7 by rvv by xvvr bšʾdy nʾn tv vby tnǧ bdly xvš myy tv ky pyštr mvrʾd bvd xvdʾy mr ʿmlhʾ tv

bi scriptio plena, verbal particle b/f impv | rav impv 2sg raftan, rav- to go (away) | xūr impv 2sg (NB spelling) xūrdan, xūr- to eat | šādī gladness, joy, rejoicing | nān bread | tanǧ impv 2sg tanǧīdan, tanǧ- to drink | dil heart (the -y is indef. art.) | xūš good, sweet, delightful | may wine | for kih since, because | pīštar prior | murād desired > pleased | ʿamal work (here w/ eẓāfe not wr.; after usually wr. -y)

Go, eat your bread in gladness, and drink your wine with a glad heart, for God has already been pleased with your works.

8 bhmh vqty bʾšnd ǧʾmhʾ tv svpydʾn vrvɣn ʾbr sr tv ny nvqṣʾn bʾšd

bāšand pres subj 3pl būdan, bāš- | ǧāme clothing, garment | supīd NP sapīd white | rawɣan oil | ny for ne not | nuqṣān lack, deficiency, want | bāšad pres subj 3sg būdan, bāš-

At all times let your clothes be white, and do not let oil be lacking from your head.

9 bybyn zndgʾny ʾbʾz zn ʾnč dvst dʾšty hmh rvzgʾn zndgʾny hrzh tv ky ʾvy hst bxš tv bzndgʾny vbrnǧ tv ʾnč tv rnǧ brʾ zyr ʾn xvvršyd

[The verse is missing a part that is in the Hebrew. The translator (or copyist) seems to have skipped from the first heḇléḵā (or hrzh tv) to the second.]

bīn impv 2sg dīdan, bīn- to see | zindagān pl of zinde alive = life (here pl as in Heb) | ʾbʾz ābāz = NP (Lazard 1963 § 108, 677-681) | zan woman, lady, wife | ānči that which (as rel. pron.; cf. Salemann & Shukovski 1889 § 36a, Lazard 1963 § 254) | dūst dāštī past 2sg, friend + to have (dāštan, dār-) = to like, love (here ) | rūzagān pl. of rūze day | harze futile, frivolous, absurd | ōy = ō (cf. Lazard 1963 § 224) | baxš fortune, lot, portion | ranǧ toil, pain | barā ptcp burdan, bar- to take, carry | zīr-i under | xvaršīd/xuršīd sun (The latter form is the NP pronunciation (with v written, but not pronounced after x, as usual), but the double -vv- written here suggests xva-, as in MP xwar(x)šēd.)

See life in the woman whom you love all the futile days of your life, for it is your fortune in life, and in your toil that you bear under the sun.

10 hmh ʾnč by rsd dst tv bkrdn bqvvt tv by kvn ky nyst ʿml vḥsyb vʿql vḥykmt bgvr ʾnč tv rvvʾ bʾnǧʾy

[The ed. mistakenly has a nun for the gimel in the last word.]

bi rasad pres subj 3sg rasīdan, ras- to reach, arrive, attain | dast hand | bi + kardan, kūn- to do | quvva power, ability | bi kūn impv 2sg kardan, kūn- | nīst neg pres 3sg būdan, bāš- to be | ʿamal work, deed | ḥasīb account, reckoning | ʿaql mind, understanding, reason, intellect | ḥikmat wisdom | gūr tomb, grave | ravā ptcp raftan, rav- to go | bānǧāy (< ba ān ǧāy; the last word in this chain < MP gyāg place; cf. Steingass 152b s.v. bānǧā, w/o -y) there, to that place

All that your hand finds to do, do with might, for there is neither work, nor reckoning, nor understanding, nor wisdom in the grave, where you are going.

3. Prov 1:1-9

Here edited from BnF héb 117, ff. 1v-2r (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b9064446k). See also Mainz 1980, Paper 1982.

1 mtlhʾ šlmh pwsr dvd pʾdyšʾh ysrʾl

pusar son | pādišāh (cf. MP pādixšā[y], NP pādšā[h]) king

The proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel.

2 bšnʾxtn ḥqmt vpnd bphm krdn gvftʾrhʾ fhymy

šināxtan, šinās- to know | pand counsel, advice admonition | fahm kardan to understand | guftār speech, saying | fahīmī intelligence, understanding

To know wisdom and counsel, to understand sayings of understanding;

3 bpdyrvftn pnd vpyš byny rʾstygry vḥvkm vxwby

paẕīruftan, paẕīr- to accept, receive | pīš-bīnī foresight, wisdom, prudence | rāstigarī uprightness | xūbī goodness, excellence, beauty

To receive counsel, the prudence of uprightness, judgement, and goodness;

4 bdʾdn bnʾdʾnʾn gvrbzy bḇvrnʾ ʿql vʾndyšhʾ 

dādan, dah- to give | nā-dān ignorant, unlearned, simple | gurbuzī intelligence, wisdom, cleverness [also has negative senses] | vurnā youth | andīš thinking, reflection, meditation

To give to the ignorant intelligence, to the youth understanding and reflection,

5 bšnvvd ḥkym vby ʾḇzʾyyd pnd vfhym ḥylthʾ ḥʾṣl kvnd

bi-šinavad pres subj 3sg ši/unūdan (ša/inīdan), šinav- to hear | bi(y)afzāyad pres subj 3sg afzūdan, afzā- to add, increase (NB for f) | ḥīlat plot, stratagem | ḥāṣil kunad pres subj 3sg ḥāṣil kardan, kun- to reach, attain (subj not explicitly marked with bi- here)

That they might hear the wise, increase counsel, and attain the understanding of stratagems;

6 bfhm krdn mtl vtrǧvmʾn sxwnʾn ḥkmym vḥdythʾ ʾyšʾn

tarǧumān interpretation | ḥªḵāmīm (Heb) the wise (pl) | ḥadīs̤ saying

To understand a proverb and the interpretation of the words of the wise and their sayings.

7 trsydgʾry xvdʾy ʾvvlyn ʿql hst ḥkmt vpnd nʾdʾnʾn xvvʾr dʾštnd

tarsīdgārī fear | xudāy God | avvalīn first | ḥikmat wisdom | x(v)ār dāštand past 3pl x(v)ār dāštan, dār- to despise

The fear of God is the beginning of knowledge. The ignorant have despised wisdom and counsel.

8 bšnvv ʾy pvsr mn pnd pdr tv vnh frʾmvš kvny ʾwrytʾ mʾdr tv

bi-šinav impv 2sg ši/unūdan (ša/inīdan), šinav- to hear | ne farāmūš kunī neg pres subj 2sg farāmūš kardan, kun- to forget | ōrāytā (Aramaic) law, instruction (wr.ʾyrytʾ in the ms) (Prov 31:26 [f. 67v] also has this Aramaic word, with for ōrāytā-yi faẓl Heb tōrat-ḥesed)

Hear, my son, the counsel of your father, and do not forget the instruction of your mother,

9 ky pyvnd xwb hnd ʾyšʾn bsr tv tʾǧhʾ bgrdn tv

payvand joint, connection, fastening | hand pres 3pl to be (cf. NP (-)andhastand) | sar head | tāǧ crown | gardan neck

For they are a beautiful chain for your head and crowns for your neck [sic].

4. Avot 1.1-4, 6-11

Asmussen 1968: 20-23

Asmussen’s transliterated text is based on BL Or. 8695, which contains the Ganǧ-nāme of ʿImrānī (15th cent.; see Yeroushalmi 1998), a long — around 4,900 verses — didactic work. The first printed ed. is by Šimʿōn Ḥāḵām (Jerusalem, 1907), and David Yeroushalmi (1995) has prepared a more recent edition, together with an annotated English translation and an introduction to the poet and the poem. See also Bacher 1907-08: 166-206, and Netzer 1974.

Two much later JP translations of Avot are published in Paper 1976. See also Asmussen 1990, where an image of 1.1-2 in this manuscript will be found (text 6); this is the source for the text below in Hebrew characters. The article includes Avot 1.1-2 in a few other Persian versions, too.


משה קבול כרד תורה אז סיני ובספורד ביהושע וניז יהושע בספורד בפיראן פיראן בפייג'מבראן ופייג'מבראן בספורדנד במרדומאן כנסת הגדולה׃ ואישאן פ'רמודנד סה סוכ'נאן כה באשיד סבר כונאיאן דר דין ובאז דאראניד תלמידאן בסיאר ובכוניד פושת בנד בתורה׃

mšh qbvl krd tvrh ʾz syny vbspvrd byhvšʿ vnyz yhvšʿ bspvrd bpyrʾn pyrʾn bpyyɣmbrʾn vpyyɣmbrʾn bspvrdnd bmrdvmʾn knst hgdvlh: vʾyšʾn frmvdnd sh svxnʾn kh bʾšyd ṣbr kvnʾyʾn dr dyn vbʾz dʾrʾnyd tlmydʾn bsyʾr vbkvnyd pvšt bnd btvrh

[As already seen, in general, note scriptio plena, esp. with with u: e.g. svxnʾn for suxunān, bkvnyd for bikunīd, pvšt for pušt.]

qabūl kard past 3sg qabūl kardan, kun- to receive | bi-sipurd past 3sg sipurdan, sipār- to deliver, transmit, hand down/over | pīr old man, elder | payɣāmbar (also MP) messenger, apostle, prophet | mardumān pl. of mard | kǝneset haggǝdōlā (Heb) great synagogue | farmūdand past 3pl farmūdan, farmā- to (be pleased to) say (also to command) | bāšīd 2pl impv būdan, bāš- to be | ṣabr kunā doing patience (kunā is a ptcp of kardan, kun-; for the form, cf. gūyā below; ṣabr is wr. sbr in the ms) | bāz dārānīd 2pl impv bāz dārāndan, dārān- to raise up (dārāndan is causative of dāštan, dār- to have; for the causative marker -ān-, added to the present stem, see Salemann & Shukovski 1903 § 65) | bi-kunīd impv 2pl kardan, kun- to make | pušt-band (or pušt-i band) hedge (pušt back, outside; support; protector, patron + band tie, fastening)

Moses received the Torah from Sinai and passed it on to Joshua. Joshua passed it on to the elders, the elders to the prophets, and the prophets passed it on to the men of the Great Synagogue, and they said three things: “Be patient in judgement; raise up many students; and make a hedge for the Torah.”


שמעון הצדיק בוד אז באקייאת מרדומאן כנסת הגדולה׃ או בוד גויא אבר סה גִזהא עאלם קייאם אסת אבר תורה ואבר עבאדת ואבר דסת גירי כרדן׃

šmʿvn hṣdyq bvd ʾz bʾqyyʾt mrdvmʾn knst hgdvlh: ʾv bvd gvyʾ ʾbr sh čyzhʾ ʿʾlm qyyʾm ʾst ʾbr tvrh vʾbr ʿbʾdt vʾbr dstgyry krdn

guftan, gū- to say; gūyā is a ptcp (see Lazard 1963 § 508), used with the copula for a past tense: būd gūyā was saying, would say | ʾabar = bar | čyzhʾ wr. ǧyzhʾ in the ms | dastgīrī help, kindness (NB in the manuscript there is a clear word space b/w the elements of the compound), here + kardan = acting kindly, practicing kindness

Šimʿōn the righteous was among the remnants of the men of Great Synagogue. He would say, “The world stands on three things: on Torah, on worship, and on practicing kindness.”


ʾnṭygnvs mrd svkv qbvl krd ʾz šmʿvn hṣdyq ʾv bvd frm(ʾyʾ) kh nh bʾšyd čvn bndgʾn xdmt kvnʾyʾn mr ʾvn rb ʾbr ǧht qbvl krdn mvzd ʾlʾ bʾšyd čvn bndgʾn xdmt kvnʾyʾn mr ʾvn rb kh nh ʾbr ǧht qbvl krdn mvzd vbʾšd shm hšm ʾbr šmʾ

farmāyā ptcp (like gūyā above) farmūdan, farmā- to (be pleased to) say (also to command) | xidmat kunā (ptcp) doing service, serving | mar particle of emphasis: the very (not always nec. to translate; on the uses of mar, see Lazard 1963 §§ 752-756; Greaves early noticed the use of this particle in JP translations for the Hebrew definite direct object marker; see his Elementa linguae persicae, p. 37) | ʾvn ūn = ān that, those | (a)bar ǧihat with a view to | muzd reward, hire, salary | ellā (Heb) but | bāšad pres subj 3sg būdan, bāš- to be | sahm fear

Antigonos, a man of Sokho, received [the handed-down Torah] from Šimʿōn the righteous. He would say, “Do not be like slaves serving their master with a view to receiving a reward. Rather, be as slaves serving their master not for the sake of receiving a reward, and let the fear of God [ha-šem] be upon you.”


yvsy psr yvʿzr mrd ṣrydh vyvsy psr yvḥnn mrd yrvšlym qbvl krdn ʾz ʾyšʾn: yvsy psr yvʿzr gvyyʾ bʾšd xʾnh tv xʾnh vʿdh ǧʾ bḥkmyn vbʾš grtgyn švvʾ xʾk pʾy ʾyšʾn vbʾš tnǧʾ btšngy mr svxnʾn ʾyšʾn

kardan = kardand (i.e., the past 3pl, not the inf; occur several times below, too; see Lazard 1963 § 79 for -nd > -n) | gvyyʾ gūyā note the double spelling of consonantal y; here we have only the ptcp, without būd, matching the Heb | vaʿde appointed time; promise (cf. Hebrew: vaʿad) | ǧā place | bāš impv 2sg būdan, bāš- to be | gardgīn dusty (not in Steingass, but cf. gard dust, earth. The Jerusalem ed. has gard-ālūdeh soiled with dust, which lines up more directly with the Heb. For the d/t alternation, see Lazard 1963 §§ 24-26.) | švvʾ (note double spelling of consonantal v) šavā ptcp of šudan, šav- to become | xāk earth, dust, soil | tanǧīdan, tanǧ- to drink (here ptcp tanǧā, with the impv bāš: be drinking!) | tišnagī thirst

Yose son of Yoezer of Ṣereda and Yose son of Yoḥanan of Jerusalem received [the handed-down Torah] from them. Yose son of Yoezer of Ṣereda would say, “Let your home be a meeting-place for the wise: get dusty with the soil of their feet, and drink their words thirstily!”


yhvšyʾ psr prḥyh vntʾy hʾrbly qbvl krdn ʾzyšʾn: yhvšyʿ psr prḥyh frmʾyʾ ḥʾṣl kvn brʾy tv mvʿlm bxr brʾy xvd rfyq vbʾš šrʿ pvrsʾ mr hmh ʾdm bkf zkvt:

ḥāṣil kun impv 2sg ḥāṣil kardan, kun- to acquire | bi-xar impv 2sg xarīdan, xar- to buy, get | NB the Heb prep. phrase lǝḵā following the imperatives is translated differently: with barāyi, but first with 2sg pron., then (a more usual expression) xūd | šarʿ pursā judging (šarʿ law, equity, religion + ptcp pursīdan, purs- to ask) | bǝḵaf zǝḵūṯ (Heb) ≈ favorably

Joshua son of Peraḥia and Nitai the Arbelite received [the handed-down Torah] from them. Joshua son of Peraḥia would say, “Acquire a master for yourself, get yourself a friend, and judge everyone favorably!”


ntʾy hʾrbly frmʾyʾ dvr švv ʾz hmsʾyyh bd nh mṣʾḥbt kvn bʾ ẓʾlmʾn vnh ṭmʿ bvrydh šv ʾz ʿqvbt

dūr distant, far | šav impv 2sg šudan | hamsāye neighbor | muṣāḥabat familiarity | kun impv of kardan, kun- to do, make | ẓālim unjust, barbarous, cruel (ẓālimān here wr. zālimān) | ṭamʿ burīdeh  despairing, having lost hope (ṭamʿ desire, hope + p.ptcp burīdan, bur- to cut) | ʿuqūbat punishment | NB the prohibitions have the negative prefix separate from the impv: i.e. we don't have m/na-kun and m/na-šav, but neh … kun and neh … šav; cf. the following verse.

Nitai the Arbelite would say, “Distance yourself from a bad neighbor, don’t be familiar with the unjust, and do despair of punishment.”


yhvdh psr ṭbʾy všmʿvn psr šṭḥ qbvl krdnd ʾzyšʾn yhvdh psr ṭbʾy frmʾyʾ mkvn xyštn xvd rʾ čvn ʾrʾsth-gʾn ʾvn qʾẓyʾn včvnk bʾšnd ṣʾḥbʾn dyn ʾystʾdgʾn bpyš tv bʾšnd dr nẓr tv čvn pʾkʾn čvnk qbvl krdn ʾbr ʾyšʾn ʾvn šrʿ

[The JP text does not follow the Hebrew fully here: some parts are missing.]

ma-kun neg impv 2sg kardan, kun- to do, make | x(w)īštan oneself, self | ārāste-gān those having adorned, prepared (pl p.ptcp of ārāstan, ārā- to adorn, arrange; the ptcp is here still spelled with the -h of the sg; contrast īstādagān below) | ʾvn ūn = ān that, those | včvnk wr. vǧvnk in the ms | īstādagān pl ptcp īstādan, īst- to stand | šarʿ law

Judah son of Ṭabbai and Šimʿōn son of Šeṭaḥ received [the handed-down Torah] from them. Judah son of Ṭabbai would say, “Don’t make yourself like those who have prepared the judges, and when litigants are standing before you, …. Let them be in your view as innocent when they have accepted the law upon themselves.”


šmʿvn psr šṭḥ frmʾyyʾ bʾš bsyʾr btfḥvs krdn mr šʾhdʾn vbʾš ʾḥtrʾz kvnʾ dr svxʾn tv kh nbʾdʾ ʾz myʾn ʾyšʾn ʾmwxth švy br drvɣ gvftn

tafaḥḥus investigation, inquiry | iḥtirāz kunā doing/making + being careful, cautious | ke na-bādā lest (may it never be) | NB az miyān matches Heb mittōk exactly | āmūxteh p.ptcp āmūxtan, āmūz- to learn | švy šavī 2sg pres subj šudan [Heb has 3pl here] | durūɣ lie, falsehood, untruth | guftan inf to speak

Šimʿōn son of Šeṭaḥ would say, “Be much in investigating the witnesses and be careful with your words, lest you learn from them how to lie.”


šmʿyh vʾbṭlyvn qbvl krdn ʾzyšʾn šmʿyh gvyʾ dvst dʾr mr ʾvn kʾr vdvšmn dʾr mr ʾvn bzvrgy vnh sr šnʾs švy br bzvrgʾn:

gūyā ptcp guftan, gū- to say | dūst dār impv 2sg to like, love (dūst friend, lover + dāštan, dār- to have) | kār work, labor | dušman dār impv 2sg to hate (dušman enemy + dāštan, dār- to have) | buzurgī greatness | sar-šinās making o.s. known

Šemaʿya and Avṭalyon received [the handed-down Torah] from them. Šemaʿya would say, “Love labor, hate greatness, and don’t make yourself known to the great.”


ʾbṭlyvn frmʾyʾ ʾy ʿʾqlʾn ʾḥtrʾz kvnyd dr svxn šmʾ kh mbʾdʾ vʾǧb švyd vʾǧb glvt vʾvlǧh ʾvftyd bmqʾm ʾbʾn bdʾn vbtnǧnd ʾvn tlmydʾn ʾyʾyyʾn ʿqb šmʾ bmyrnd yʾfth švd šm šmym ḥylvl švvʾ

iḥtirāz being careful, cautious | kunīd impv 2pl kardan, kun- to do, make (with the previous noun) | ke ma-bādā lest | šavīd 2pl pres subj šudan, šav- to become | vāǧib worthy, fit; guilt (2x: vāǧib šavīd is for the Heb תחובו; vāǧib-i gālūt for the noun phrase חובת גלות; for the Heb word gālūt here the Jerusalem ed. has hyǧrt, i.e. Arabic hiǧra) | ūlǧe prisoner, booty | uftīd pres subj 2pl uftādan, uft- to fall | maqām place, dwelling | bi-tanǧand pres subj 3pl tanǧīdan, tanǧ- to drink | ʾvn ūn = ān that, those | āyāyān (those) coming (cf. āmadan, ā- to come) | ʿaqb behind, after | bi-mīrand pres subj 3pl murdan, mīr- to die | yāfteh p.ptcp yāftan, yāb- to find | šavad pres subj 3sg šudan, šav- to become | ḥillūl (Heb) desecration, defamation | švvʾ šavā ptcp šudan, šav- to become

Avṭalyon would say, “Scholars, be careful with your words, lest you be fit for exile and fall a prisoner in a place of evil waters and the disciples coming after you drink [from those evil waters], die, the Name of Heaven found being desecrated.”



This bibliography is merely a selection, but it is certainly comprehensive enough to give an idea of past and present work on Judeo-Persian language and literature. (For more strictly biblical JP resources, see the online bibliography mentioned above.)

Adler, E. N. (1986). The Persian Jews: their Books and their Ritual. Jewish Quarterly Review, 10, 584–625.

Asmussen, J. P. (1965a). Judaeo-Persica I: Shahin-i Shirazi’s Aradshir Nama. Acta Orientalia, 28, 245-61.

Asmussen, J. P. (1965b). Judaeo-Persica II: The Jewish Law-Report from Ahwaz, A.D. 1020. Acta Orientalia, 29, 49-60.

Asmussen, J. P. (1966). Judaeo-Persica IV: Einige Bemerkungen zu Baba Ben Nuriels Psalmenüberseztung. Acta Orientalia, 30, 15–24.

Asmussen, J. P. (1968). Jewish Persian Texts: Introduction, Selected and Glossary. Wiesbaden.

Asmussen, J. P. (1969). A Select List of Words from the Vatican Judaeo-Persian Pentateuch (Genesis). In K. R. Cama Oriental Institute Golden Jubilee Volume (pp. 93–102). Bombay.

Asmussen, J. P. (1975). Jüdisch-Persische Hoseastücke. In Monumentum H.S. Nyberg (Vol. 1, pp. 15–18). Leiden.

Asmussen, J. P. (1977). Eine jüdisch-persische Version des Propheten Obadja. Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 25, 255–263.

Asmussen, J. P. (1985). Some Textual Problems in the Hebrew Bible and their Treatment in Judaeo-Persian Versions. Acta Iranica, 28, 1–7.

Asmussen, J. P. (1989a). Bemerkungen zu einer “neuen” jüdisch-persischen Qohälat-Übersetzung der Hebräischen Bibel. In Études Irano-Aryennes Offertes à Gilbert Lazard (pp. 1–4). Paris.

Asmussen, J. P. (1989b). BIBLE vi. Judeo-Persian Translations. In Encyclopaedia Iranica (Vol. 4, pp. 208–209). Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bible-vi

Asmussen, J. P. (1990). Remarks on Some Judaeo-Persian Translations of the Pirqe Abhoth. Bulletin of the Asia Institute, N.S., 4 (In Honour of R. N. Frye), 183-85.

Asmussen, J. P. (1991). Ornithologisches aus den jüdisch-persischen Übersetzungen der hebräischen Bibel. In R. E. Emmerick & D. Weber (Eds.), Corolla Iranica. Papers in Honour of D.N. MacKenzie (pp. 1–2). Frankfurt am Main.

Asmussen, J. P. (1995). Some Bird Names in the Judaeo-Persian Translations of the Hebrew Bible. In Z. Zevit, S. Gitn, & M. Sokoloff (Eds.), Solving Riddles and Untying Knots. Biblical, Epigraphic, and Semitic Studies in Honour of Jonas C. Greenfield (pp. 3–5). Winona Lake, Indiana.

Bacher, W. (1896). Ein hebräisch-persisches Wörterbuch aus dem 15. Jahrhundert. Zeitschrift für die altttestamentlische Wissenschaft, 16, 201-47. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/zeitschriftfrd16berluoft#page/200/mode/2up

Bacher, W. (1897). Ein persischer Kommentar zum Buche Samuel. ZDMG, 51, 392-425. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/titleinfo/63070

Bacher, W. (1898). Das jüdisch-buchârische Gedicht Chudâidâd: Beiträge zur Textkritik und Erklärung. ZDMG, 52, 197-212. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/titleinfo/62968

Bacher, W. (1899). Der Dichter Jusuf Jehudi and sein Lob Moses. ZDMG, 53, 389-427. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/44779

Bacher, W. (1901). Jüdisch-persisches aus Buchârâ. ZDMG, 55, 241-257. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/46181

Bacher, W. (1902). Jüdisch-persisches aus Buchârâ. ZDMG, 56, 729-759. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/47466

Bacher, W. (1903). Un épisode de l’histoire des Juifs de Perse. Revue des études juives 47, 262-82. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/Bacher_episode_de_lhistoire_Juifs_de_Perse

Bacher, W. (1905). Zur jüdisch-persischen Litteratur. In E. N. Adler, About Hebrew Manuscripts (pp. 135-168). London. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/AboutHebrewManuscripts/About_Hebrew_manuscripts#page/n159/mode/2up

Bacher, W. (1907-08). Zwei judische-persische Dichter, Schahin und Imrani, 2 vols., Strassbourg.

Borjian, H. (2014). What Is Judeo-Median — And How Does It Differ from Judeo-Persian? Journal of Jewish Languages, 2, 117-142. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/phg9vc8

Browne, E.G. (1908). A Literary History of Persia: From the Earliest Times until Firdawsí. London.

Darmesteter, J. (1887). L’Apocalypse persane de Daniel. In Mélanges Renier (pp. 405–420). Paris. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/darmesteter_apocalypse_persan_daniel

De Lagarde, P. (1884). Persische Studien. Göttingen. Retrieved from http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/dms/resolveppn/?PPN=GDZPPN002020394

Drenger, B. D., & Cecil Roth. (1967). Haggadat Yehudei Sin: The Haggadah of the Chinese Jews. New York.

Fischel, W. J. (1952). The Bible in Per­sian Translation. Harvard Theological Review, 45, 3–45.

Fischel, W. J. (1960). Israel in Iran. A Survey of Judeo-Persian Literature. In L. Finkelstein (Ed.), The Jews. Their History, Culture, and Religion (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1149–1190). New York.

Fischel, W. J. (1972). Judeo-­Persian Literature. In Encyclopaedia Judaica (Vol. 10, pp. 431–439). Jerusalem.

Fraenkel, S. (1897). Bemerkungen zu den jüdisch-persischen Glossen zum Buche Samuel. ZDMG, 51, 681-682. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/43429

Geiger, W. (1898). Bemerkungen über das Judenpersisch. In W. Geiger & E. Kuhn (Eds.), Grundriss der iranischen Philologie (Vol. 1.2, pp. 408–412). Strassburg. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/bub_gb_sbxfAAAAMAAJ#page/n755/mode/2up

Gindin, T. (2003). The Tafsīr of Ezekiel: Four Copyists or Four Authors? In L. Paul (Ed.), Persian Origins - Early Judaeo-Persian and the Emergence of New Persian: Collected Papers of the Symposium, Gottingen 1999 (pp. 15-30). Wiesbaden.

Gindin, T. (2005). Middle Persian Survivals and Other Lexicographical Puzzles in early Judaeo-Persian. In C. Cereti & M. Maggi (Eds.), Middle Iranian Lexicography (pp. 331–349). Rome.

Gindin, T. (2007a). Early Judaeo-Persian of Ezekiel: Text, Translation, Commentary (Vol. 1: Text). Vienna.

Gindin, T. (2007b). Early Judaeo-Persian of Ezekiel: Text, Translation, Commentary (Vol. 2: Translation). Vienna.

Gindin, T. (2009). JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES viii. JUDEO-PERSIAN LANGUAGE. In Encyclopaedia Iranica (Vol. 15, pp. 132–139). Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/judeo-persian-viii-judeo-persian-language

Gnoli, G. (1964). Le iscizioni giudeo-persiane del Ġūr (Afghanistan). Serie Orientale Roma 3. Rome.

Guidi, I. (1885). Di una versione persiana del Pentateuco. Atti Della Reale Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, Serie Quarta, 282, 347–355.

Hary, B. (1996). Adaptations of Hebrew Script. In P.  T. Daniels and W. Bright, The World’s Writing Systems (pp. 727-734). New York and Oxford.

Hassler, K. D. (1829). Nachricht von einer bisher noch unbekannten unmittelbaren persischen Uebersetzung der Salomonischen Schriften. Theolo­gische Studien Und Kritiken, 2/3, 469–480.

Henning , W. B. (1957). The Inscriptions of Tang-i Azao. BSOAS, 20, 335-42.

Hjerrild Carlsen, B. (1984). Amos in Judeo-Persian. Acta Iranica, 23, 73–112.

Hjerrild Carlsen, B. (1977). Jonah in Judeo-Persian. Acta Iranica, 12, 13–26.

Horn, P. (1893a). Jüdisch-persische Poesie. ZDMG, 47, 202-212. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/39728

Horn, P. (1893b). Zu den jüdisch-persischen Bibelübersetzungen. Indogermanische Forschungen, 2, 132–142. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/indogermanische14unkngoog#page/n143/mode/2up

Houtum-Schindler, A. (1909). Eine jüdisch-persische Handschrift. ZDMG, 63, 441-452. Retrieved from http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/55755

Khan, G. (2000). A Grammatical Commentary on the Bible in Judaeo-Persian. In Early Karaite Grammatical Texts (pp. 241-331). Society of Biblical Literature Masoretic Studies 9. Atlanta.

Khan, G. (2002). Judaeo-Arabic and Judaeo-Persian. In M. Goodman, J. Cohen, & D. Sorkin, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies (pp. 601-620). Oxford.

Kohut, A. (1871). Kritische Beleuchtung der persischen Pentateuch-Uebersetzung des Jacob Ben Joseph Tavus unter stetiger Rücksichtnahme auf die aeltesten Bibelversionen: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Bibel-Exegese. Leipzig and Heidelberg. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_C-HHw9wmIcUC

Lazard, G. (1963). La langue des plus anciens monuments de la prose persane. Paris.

Lazard, G. (1968). La dialectologie du Judéo-Persan. Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 8, 77–98.

Lazard, G. (1978). Remarques sur le style des anciennes traductions persanes du Coran et de la Bible. Bulletin D’études Orientales, 30, 45–49.

Lazard, G. (1990). Lumières nouvelles sur la formation de la langue persane. Une traduction du Coran en persan dialectal et ses affinités avec le judéo-persan. In S. Shaked & A. Netzter (Eds.), Irano-Judaica II (pp. 184–198). Jerusalem.

Lazard, G. (1998). Remarques sur le fragment judeo-persan de Danda-Uiliq. In Barg-e Sabz. A Green Leaf. Papers in Honour of Professor Jes. P. Asmussen. Acta Iranica 28 (pp. 205-209). Leiden.

Leslie, Donald Daniel. (1968-1969). The Judaeo-Persian Colophons to the Pentateuch of the K’aifeng Jews. Abr-Nahrain, 7, 1-35.

Mace, J. (2003). Persian Grammar for Reference and Revision. London and New York.

MacKenzie, D. N. (1966). Ad Judaeo-Persica II Hafniensia. JRAS, 69.

MacKenzie, D. N. (1968). An Early Jewish–Persian Argument. BSOAS, 31, 249-69.

MacKenzie, D. N. (2003). The Missing Link. In L. Paul (Ed.), Persian Origins - Early Judaeo-Persian and the Emergence of New Persian: Collected Papers of the Symposium, Gottingen 1999 (pp. 103–110). Wiesbaden.

Mainz, E. (1970). Esther en judéo-persan. Journal Asiatique, 257, 95–106.

Mainz, E. (1974). L’Ecclésiaste en judéo-persan. Studia Iranica, 3, 211–228.

Mainz, E. (1976). Ruth et le Cantique en judéo-persan. Journal Asiatique, 264, 9–34.

Mainz, E. (1977). Vocabulaire judéo-persan. Studia Iranica, 6, 75–95.

Mainz, E. (1980). Le livre des Proverbes en judéo-persan. Journal Asiatique, 268, 71–106.

Mainz, E. (1982). Le livre de Daniel en judéo-persan. In S. Shaked (Ed.), Irano-Judaica (pp. 148–179). Jerusalem.

Margoliouth, D. S. (1899). A Jewish-Persian Law Report,” Jewish Quarterly Review, 11, 671-75.

Margoliouth, D. S. (1903). An Early Judaeo-Persian Document From Khotan in the Stein Collection, with Other Early Persian documents. JRAS, 737-60.

Minorsky, V. (1942). Some Early Documents in Persian. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 181–194.

Moreen, V. B. (1990-91). The Legend of Adam in the Judeo-Persian Epic Bereshit [Nāmah] (14th century). Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 57, 155-178.

Moreen, V. B. (1995). A Supplementary List of Judaeo-Persian Manuscripts. Electronic British Library Journal, 71-80. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/eblj/1995articles/article6.html

Moreen, V. B. (1997). Rediscovering Judeo-Persian Poetry. Prooftexts, 17, 311-319.

Moreen, V. B. (2000). In Queen Esther’s Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature. Yale Judaica 30. New Haven.

Moreen, V. B. (2015). Catalog of Judeo-Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Études sur le judaïsme médiéval 63. Leiden.

Munk, S. (1838). Version persane. In Notice sur Rabbi Saadia Gaon et sa version arabe d’Isaie, et sur une version persane manuscrite de la Bibliothèque Royale (pp. 62–87). Paris. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/noticesurrabbisa00munk#page/62/mode/2up

Netzter, A. (1974). A Judeo-Persian Footnote: Šāhīn and ʿEmrānī. Israel Oriental Studies, 4, 1974, 258-64.

Netzter, A. (2002). An Early Judaeo-Persian Fragment from Zefreh. Psalms 44:24-27, 45:1-9 and 55:1-16. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 27, 419–438.

Netzer, A. (2009). JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ix. JUDEO-PERSIAN LITERATURE. In Encyclopaedia Iranica (Vol. 15, pp. 139-156). Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/judeo-persian-ix-judeo-persian-literature

Nöldeke, T. (1884). Review of Lagarde, Persische Studien. Literarisches Centralblatt, (26), 888–891.

Nöldeke, T. (1897). Judenpersisch. Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 51, 669–676.

Otho, G. (1692). Virga Aharonis Polyglottos, seu dissertationes philologicae V. quibus ex textûs sacri Num. XVII. vers. 1-11. Marburg. Retrieved from http://archive.thulb.uni-jena.de/hisbest/rsc/viewer/HisBest_derivate_00010357/hoesv_326324127_0001.tif

Otho, G. (1702). Palaestra linguarum orientalium, hos est: quatuor primorum capitum Geneseos. Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ortho_Palaestra_Linguarum_Orientalium

Palmer, E.H. (1882). Simplified Grammar of Hindūstānī, Persian and Arabic, Trübner's Collection of Simplified Grammars of the Principal Asiatic and European Languages (pp. 28-54). London. 

Paper, H. H. (1964). The Vatican Judeo-Persian Pentateuch: Genesis. Acta Orientalia, 28, 263–340.

Paper, H. H. (1965). The Vatican Judeo-Persian Pentateuch: Exodus and Leviticus. Acta Orientalia, 29, 75–181.

Paper, H. H. (1966). The Vatican Judeo-Persian Pentateuch: Numbers. Acta Orientalia, 29, 253–310.

Paper, H. H. (1967a). A Note on Judeo-Persian Copulas. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 87, 227–230.

Paper, H. H. (1967b). Judeo-Persian Deverbatives in -šn and -št. Indo-Iranian Journal, 10, 56–71.

Paper, H. H. (1968a). Judeo-Persian Bible Translations: Some Sample Texts. Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 8, 99–113.

Paper, H. H. (1968b). The Use of (ha)mē in Selected Judeo-Persian Texts. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88, 483–494.

Paper, H. H. (1968c). The Vatican Judeo-Persian Pentateuch: Deuteronomy. Acta Orientalia, 31, 55–113.

Paper, H. H. (1972a). A Judeo-Persian Pentateuch. The Text of the Oldest Judaeo-Persian Pentateuch Translation, British Museum Ms. Or. 5446. Jerusalem and Leiden.

Paper, H. H. (1972b). Another Judeo-Persian Pentateuch Translation, MS HUC 1923. Hebrew Union College Annual, 43, 207–251.

Paper, H. H. (1973a). Biblia Judaeo-Persica. Editio Variorum. Ann Arbor.

Paper, H. H. (1973b). Ecclesiastes in Judeo-Persian. Orientalia, 42, 328–337.

Paper, H. H. (1973c). Research in Judaeo-Persian: Needs, Deeds and Prospects. In World Congress of Jewish Studies 5 (Vol. 4, pp. 85–89). Jerusalem.

Paper, H. H. (1975a). Isaiah in Judeo-Persian (Chapters 1 and 2). Acta Iranica, 5, 145–161.

Paper, H. H. (1975b). Notes to a Judeo-Persian Bible Manuscript: Ben Zvi Institute Jerusalem Ms. 1028. Indo-Iranian Journal, 17, 218–243.

Paper, H. H. (1976). A Judeo-Persian Book of Job. Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 5.12, 313–365.

Paper, H. H. (1978). Judeo-Persian. In H. H. Paper (Ed.), Jewish Languages: Theme and Variation (pp. 103–114). Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Paper, H. H. (1982). Proverbs in Judeo-Persian. In S. Shaked (Ed.), Irano-Judaica (pp. 122–147). Jerusalem.

Paper, H. H. (1989). Joel in Judeo-Persian. In The Islamic World: From Classical to Modern Times. Essays in Honor of Bernard Lewis (pp. 259–267). Princeton.

Paper, H. H., & Asmussen, J. P. (1977). The Song of Songs in Judeo-Persian: Introduction, Texts, Glossary. Copenhagen.

Paul, L. (2003a). Early Judaeo-Persian in a Historical Perspective: The Case of the Prepositions be, u, pa(d), and the Suffix rā. In L. Paul (Ed.), Persian Origins - Early Judaeo-Persian and the Emergence of New Persian: Collected Papers of the Symposium, Gottingen 1999 (pp. 177–194). Wiesbaden.

Paul, L. (2003b). Jewish-Persian between Middle-Persian and New Persian: Re-examining an Old Hypothesis. In S. Shaked (Ed.), Irano-Judaica V (pp. 96–104). Jerusalem.

Paul, L. (2013a). PERSIAN LANGUAGE i. Early New Persian. In Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/persian-language-1-early-new-persian

Paul, L. (2013b). A Grammar of Early Judaeo-Persian. Ludwig Reichert.

Perry, J. (2007). Persian Morphology. In A.S. Kaye (Ed.), Morphologies of Asia and Africa, vol. 2 (pp. 975-1020). Winona Lake.

Perry, J. (2011). Lexicography. In Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved from http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/lexicography

Ranking, G.S.A. (1907). Primer of Persian, Containing Selections for Reading and Composition with the Elements of Syntax. Oxford.

Rapp, E. L. (1971). Die persisch-hebräischen Inschriften Afghanistans aus dem 11. bis 13. Jahrhundert. Mainz.

Rapp, E. L. (1973). Neue persisch-hebräische Inschriften Afghanestans aus dem Mittelalter. Eine Gesamtübersicht. In Jahrbuch der Vereinigung “Freunde der Üniversität Mainz” (pp. 52-66). Mainz.

Salemann, C. (1884). Review of Lagarde, Persische Studien. Literatur-Blatt Für Orientalische Philologie, (2), 74–86.

C. Salemann,  Judaeo-Persica I. Chudâidât, ein jüdisch-bucharisches Gedicht, St. Petersburg, 1897.

Salemann, C. (1900). Zum mittelpersischen Passiv. Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale Des Sciences, 13, 269–276.

Salemann, C. (К. Залеманъ). (1904). По поводу еврейско-персидскаго отрывка изъ Хотана. Записки Восточнаго Отдѣленія Императорскаго Русскаго Археологическаго Общества, 16, 46-57. https://archive.org/details/salemann_judeo_persian_letter_khotan (see also http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/M.Asien/VIII/Evr_pers_dok_Chotan/text.htm)

Salemann, C., & V. Shukovski. (1889). Persische Grammatik mit Literatur, Chrestomathie, und Glossar. Porta Linguarum Orientalium. Berlin. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/persischegramma00zhukgoog

Seligsohn, M. (1903). The Hebrew-­Persian Manuscripts of the British Museum. Jewish Quarterly Review, 15, 278–286.

Seligsohn, M. (1902). Quatre poésies judéo-persanes sur les persécutions des Juifs d’Ispahan. Revue des études juives, 44, 1902, 87-103, 244-59. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/revuedestudesjui44soci#page/87/mode/1up

Shaked, S. (1971). Judaeo-Persian Notes. Israel Oriental Studies, 1, 178–182.

Shaked, S. (1981). Epigraphica Judaeo-Iranica. In S. Morag, I. Ben-Ami, & N. A. Stillman, eds. Studies in Judaism and Islam Presented to S. D. Goitein (pp. 65-82). Jerusalem.

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Shaked, S., & A. Netzer, eds. (1982-2003). Irano-Judaica: Studies Relating to Jewish Contacts with Persian Culture throughout the Ages. 5 vols. Jerusalem.

Shapira, D. (1999). Qissa-ye Daniel or “The Story of Daniel” in Judaeo-Persian: The Text and its Translation (in Hebrew). Sefunot, 22, 337–366.

Shapira, D. (2003). Judaeo-Persian Translations of Old Persian Lexica: A Case of Linguistic Discontinuity. In L. Paul (Ed.), Persian Origins - Early Judaeo-Persian and the Emergence of New Persian: Collected Papers of the Symposium, Gottingen 1999 (pp. 221-242). Wiesbaden.

Spicehandler, E. (1968). A Descriptive List of Judeo-Persian Manuscripts at the Klau Library of the Hebrew Union College. Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 8, 114–136.

Steingass, F. (1892). A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. London. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/AComprehensivePersian-EnglishDictionary-FrancisJosephSteingass

Stern, S. M. (1949). A propos de l’inscription juive d’Afghanistan. JA (NS), 237, 47-49.

Tahan, I. (2014, February 5). Important Judeo-Persian Bibles in the British Library. Retrieved from http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/asian-and-african/2014/02/important-judeo-persian-bibles-in-the-british-library.html

Thackston, W. (2009). Introduction to Persian. Rev. 4t ed. Washington, D.C.

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